NEO-GOTHIC, GOTHIC REVIVAL
The GOTHIC revival, the GOTHIC REVIVAL (Gothic Revival) architectural style, draw inspiration from medieval architecture and the opposing neo-classical revival in the United States and great Britain; on the continent it is possible to find only separate examples of this style. The earliest example of the Renaissance of elements of Gothic architecture is the house of the English writer Horace Walpole — strawberry hill. As in many other buildings of early Gothic was primarily used for its picturesque and romantic qualities, with little consideration for structural deficiencies or unsuitability of the building for its functions. Another ancient example of the trend toward the use of ornament and decorations is built by James Health, the Abbey of Fonte hill — farmhouse with tower height of 82 meters there are Few things more brighter to illustrate both the impracticality of usage and the romantic associations with the middle ages.
The earliest manifestations of nostalgia for the architecture of the Gothic in respect of private buildings, but by 1820 the years, public buildings in England are also beginning to be designed in the Gothic style. Perhaps the most famous example of this architecture — new houses of Parliament (1840), designed by sir Charles Barry and A. W. N. Pudina.In a large group of buildings bessis dark picturesque borrowing gave way to a more conscious adaptation of the medieval English style. All other buildings in the middle of the century, adhered to this principle. Later, the desire for greater elegance of the buildings led to the latest period of flourishing of the style. In the United States Architech RA in this style also can be divided into two groups. First, bright but relatively Amateur in approach, presented by Trinity Church, Richard Apgo on (new York, 1840). This style is the same as in England, the preference in the construction of the estates of the nobility. Late style, archaeologically more correct, inspired the creators of such buildings as the Cathedral of St. Patrick Reinvik (new York, 1859-1879) and prevailed in the CI build public buildings.
There were several reasons for the transition from neoclassical to neo-Gothic, but there are three most important. The first is a literary interest in the middle ages, inspired by the universal revolution of Romanism, which gave rise to Gothic stories and novels. Subsuming the place of action of his novels in medieval times, authors such as Walpole and especially sir Walter Scott, contributed to the development of nostalgia for medieval times. Another manifestation of this tendency was the image in different landscapes, ruins of medieval castles and abbeys. The second reason is article architectural theorists, interested in varying degrees in Church reform, liturgical Perrin seniya greatness goticheskoe of architecture in their time.
The third reason, which reinforced the religious and spiritual influence of all these was the works of John Rees Keene “the Seven beacons of architecture” (1849) and “Stones of Venice” (1853), which were widely popular in those days. Ruskin proved in his works that the quality of the works of medieval masters do symbolizes spiritual superiority lifestyle of that period on contemporary and encouraged to return to him. Article French architect Eugene Emmanuel violet LeDuc created the necessary atmosphere for the revival of Goti Chicago style in architecture. At the same time, his work was very weak similarity to the Gothic, and its imaginary restoration projects.