The oldest artifacts in the world
Mankind has always had a special thrill in relation to the creations of our imagination and intellect. In General, this is true, because such artifacts distinguish us from animals, and we are proud of:
The oldest extant European book
Which of the extant books is the oldest? It’s a complicated issue, given the fact, the very definition of the word “book” has caused a number of debates. However, it was recognized that the oldest book preserved in perfect condition, is the gospel of St. Cuthbert. This book is leather bound in red, written in the 7th century. In 2012, the British library of London paid her $ 14 million the Belgian congregation of the Jesuits. Its fully digitized version can be found on the Internet. The book is a copy of the gospel of John, written in northeastern England for Saint Cuthbert, and then placed in his coffin. When the Vikings began their first raids on these places, the local monastic community left his abode and together with the coffin of St. Cuthbert moved to Durham. The coffin was opened in 1104, when the construction of a new Church dedicated to this Saint. Since then the book was passed from hand to hand until it came to the Jesuits.
The most ancient official coin
Even before States began to issue their own coins, the first of their similarity has already been set in motion by wealthy merchants and influential members of the community. And although to this day there is some controversy, most experts are inclined to believe that the world’s first official coin should be considered as the Lydian third stater, minted by king Aliotta in Lydia, in modern Turkey. It depicts the head of a snarling lion, on the other hand – minted double square. The coin made of electrum (alloy of silver and gold), which turned out harder than normal gold. In the ancient world it was called “white gold”. Later coins were spread on the territory of ancient Greece, and from there went to the rest of the world. One third of the Lydian stater was equal to the salary for the month. Choose the coins were minted in the period from 660 and up to 600 years BC. By modern standards, it’s pretty rare coins, each of which will cost about 1000-2000 dollars.
The oldest wooden building
The most ancient wooden buildings that have survived are located in a Buddhist temple Polecat-JI temple in Japan. Four buildings belonging to the temple, came to us in excellent condition, although their Foundation was laid already in 587 BC by order of Emperor Jomaa. The construction was completed by his successor Prince Shotoku in 607 year. In 670 BC, the complex burned down and was rebuilt in 710 BC After that, the building has managed to survive all the hardships that have befallen Japan, and remain virtually unscathed. The complex consists of a five-story pagoda, Golden hall, inner gate and the wooden corridor that surrounds the Central area. Several historians have questioned the existence of the fire that destroyed the complex in antiquity, if they are right, then this building is much more ancient age than is considered. But even with the fire, this building was built 14 centuries.
The oldest image of a man
Venus of Hole-Fels is the oldest statue in the world, which depicts a man. Age figurines about 40,000 years, its length is 6 inches, and cut it from ivory. She has no head, but over the left shoulder visible trace of a ring, which presumably means that it was worn on the neck. Many researchers believe that these figurines served as symbols of fertility. Venus was discovered in the caves of Hole-Fels near Ulm in South-West Germany.
The most ancient musical instruments
In 2012 scientists have discovered the oldest musical instruments on the planet. Their age was 42-43 thousand years. The find was identified by Professor Nick Conarton, a researcher at the University of tübingen. Found instruments were flutes carved from mammoth ivory and bird bones. They were found in a cave Hessenkassel in the upper Danube, southern Germany. Professor Conard believes that the artifacts collected in this area suggest that this area of technological innovation has started its way through Europe. Flute, most likely, could be used for recreation or religious rituals.
Ancient cave paintings
Until 2014 the oldest cave paintings were considered the drawings of the late Paleolithic, the age of 30-32 thousand years, found in Chauvet cave in the valley of the Ardeche river in France. But a new discovery on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi and the Eastern part of the island of Borneo questioned a previous statement. In September 2014, scientists have confirmed that the age of some rock paintings found here may be more than 40,000 years. They depict local animals and handprints. Thus, these specimens of rock art deserve the right to be called the most ancient rock paintings.
The oldest working mechanical clock
The world’s oldest working mechanical clock are massive mechanical clock, located on the Salisbury Cathedral in southern England. They were made by order of Bishop Arguma in 1386, and is composed of a wheel and gear system. The watch is fastened to the bell of the Cathedral with the help of ropes. They are remarkable in that they beat every hour. Before watch of similar design came into use, they were not common in everyday life, and need in hours only astronomers who used for this purpose sand or sundial.
The oldest ever found masks are masks, whose age is 9000 years old. This stone mask, found on the territory of modern Israel, in the Judean desert and the Judean hills. The masks are currently on display at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The masks themselves are stylized faces like a skull, with holes for eyes and mouth. The researchers note that the carving of masks are made so that they were quite comfortable to wear, but have not yet come to a clear conclusion, what purpose they were used. Archaeologists believe that many of them were made from biodegradable materials, so most of the masks are lost to us forever.
The oldest example of an abstract pattern
In 2007, archaeologists studying the shells of mollusks, collected on the island of Java in Indonesia, has discovered what they thought were engravings carved on the surface of the shells. Many shell had the characteristic holes on the ends, which they fastened to each other, indicating that above the sink definitely someone has worked. In 2014 a group of researchers confirmed that the holes were made using instruments, and the engravings were made by man, it was probably Homo erectus. Even more surprising was that the zigzag drawings were the most ancient abstractions of all that we’ve faced so far. The team under the leadership of Josephine Gardens of Leiden University in the Netherlands found that their age is 500 000 years, and the figures were drawn with the help of shark teeth.
The oldest tools
The oldest tools were found in Gona, Ethiopia, and their age was 2.5-2.6 million years. This makes them not only the most ancient instruments, but also the most ancient artifacts extant. The tools consist of sharp pieces of rock. Most likely, they were used to separate meat from the bones. Although it was discovered more than 2600 of these tools next to them there were no traces of human remains, which casts doubt on their origin.