The beginning of the heyday of the slave system in Ancient Egypt historians refer to the III Millennium B. C. the ancient Egyptian pharaohs who were enslaved in those distant times of neighboring peoples and owned hundreds of thousands of slaves, was a well-known simple cooperation of labour, the joint participation of groups of people in various related works.
New economic and technical possibilities of the ancient Egyptian state used for the construction of huge temples and pyramids. The architecture of the pyramids, which served as burial places of the pharaohs, in its development went from simple designs to more complex and perfect.
It should be borne in mind that each building is created primarily for specific practical purposes, renders its shapes and sizes different emotional impact on people. About the power of this influence was known in ancient times.
The ruling classes often made use of this architecture in order to consolidate his power. The overwhelming power of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt expressed a kind of laconic forms a colossal pyramid, causing a sense of depression.
The largest complex of the Egyptian pyramids are the pyramids at Giza.
Fig. View of the Pyramid complex at Giza
Fig. The proportions of the great pyramids complex in Giza
The large-size pyramid of Khufu (XXIX century BC) was 146,6 m in height,which corresponds to the height of a 45-storey modern residential building; the length of each side of the base is equal to 233 m. the Pyramid was built 20 years and 10 years – the road to the quarry. The volume of the pyramid exceeds 2.5 million m3.
The enormous size and had the temples of Egypt; for example, columns of the temple of Amun at Karnak has a height of 20.4 m with a diameter of 3.5 L.
Fig. the temple of Amun at Karnak. The hypostyle hall.
Figure a fragment of the temple of Amun at Karnak
Figure Plan of the temple of Amun at Karnak
The level of development of architecture is depending on the level of the productive forces of society and forms of social and economic relations, and if you keep in mind a slaveholding system and feudalism, to architecture greatly influenced religious beliefs and religious observances.
As a result of interaction of the material and technical factors, social ideas and aesthetic ideals had developed certain architectural styles.
The architectural style in the most General sense of the word is determined by the commonality of the constructive and artistic techniques. So, for the architectural style of Ancient Egypt is characterized by massive stone structures with a slightly fragmented onshore massif laconic forms, clear proportions.
Fig. Edfu – an Open courtyard surrounded by columns
The stability of the forms of Egyptian architecture is explained, on the one hand, the slow development of the productive forces and techniques, and the stability of religious beliefs and rituals, left an indelible mark on the architecture of religious buildings.