Architecture Of Spain
To the year 1250 in Europe gradually began to take shape Gothic style in architecture. It is believed that the first steps in this direction were made by the Abbot Suger, the Abbot of the Abbey of Saint-Denis near Paris. It was under him that the Church of the Abbey was rebuilt. First try to understand the term “Gothic”. It was first applied to art in the sixteenth century. This concept defined the art dalenesselson and non-Italian; something “barbaric”. During the time of revival of Gothic in the eighteenth century the term began to be used in respect of all medieval art Italian Renaissance art. Already in the XIX century part of this art called Romanesque. So the Gothic became known as art created between the Romanesque and Renaissance periods.
Spanish Gothic began to take shape about the XIII century. Its development proceeded unevenly due to the disintegration of the Kingdom and influence in different historical areas of local traditions or the influence of art of the Arabs. The style manifested itself almost exclusively in ecclesiastical architecture, while secular architecture remained largely faithful to the dialogue with Moorish tradition. In Spain, the spread of new architectural ideas was slow. Cisterians introduced several Gothic techniques: this was manifested in the form of Araki ribs of the arch, and in the use of Lancet arches. Also has also left its mark Moorish techniques to the interpretation of the Gothic system nevernogo frame. the vault above the crossing is based on a cruciform arches located in the space between them is placed an eight-pointed openwork star. In Seville’s Cathedral, erected on the site of a mosque, the bell tower is the former minaret of the Giralda; the most pronounced effects of the Arab art was manifested in the brick cathedrals, constructed by Muslim craftsmen.
One building of the XII century, the Cathedral of Avila, in its plan and architecture of the Eastern façade (begun before the year 1181), the elements, rising, apparently to the French Saint-Denis. The Cathedral in Cuenca (begun around 1200) has a clearly Gothic in nature: its main parts are quickened stucco and carved ornaments, high ceilings and selicate, and on the capitals of the leaf ornament. In a little Church in Hospederia Roncesvalles (started in 1209) gallery triforia similar to Cathedral.
First Spanish churches which are repeated scale French Gothic cathedrals were cathedrals in Burgos (begun in 1222) and Toledo (begun in 1226). For Spanish Gothic typical free fantasy retreat from the common structural plan of the building and numerous additions to the original plan in the form of numerous chapels and outbuildings. The most important feature of the monuments of Spanish Gothic architecture is a continuation of the space choir from East to West, from the apse to the middle of the Central nave. The choir was separated by a partition decorated with high, for it housed the main chapel, also enclosed by a wall. In the chapel the altar was fenced off from the dossal of space is high, richly decorated altarpiece. All this transformed the chapel into an independent Church inside the Cathedral.
City councils are large in size and, despite the rich decor of the facades have a relatively short window. The altar and choir was lit by Windows of large openwork lantern towers, particularly richly decorated in the era of the late Gothic period (the Cathedral in Burgos). Unlike French cathedrals, filled with light, Spanish dominates in the twilight. However, the Cathedral in león (1205-1288 years) almost the only, where the walls are almost wholly occupied with the large Windows with stained glass.