The Gothic style of architecture
>Unasledovala this work is dedicated to the most famous Gothic cathedrals that were erected in France during the period from the second half of the XII century to the XV century.
It is known that in the middle Ages in France were 86 constructed Gothic cathedrals. In the Gothic architecture reflected a fundamental change in the structure of medieval society. The Gothic Cathedral (
History, architecture, its construction) is of undoubted interest. Notre Dame Cathedral, Strasbourg Cathedral, Reims Cathedral admire the grandeur and beauty and are considered to be true pearls of Gothic architecture. Many Gothic cathedrals are under the supervision and protection of the state, some are UNESCO heritage sites. However, the majority of gymnasium students, learners of French know very little about the Gothic cathedrals of France, their creators, issues of the day. According to our survey % of students would like to learn about Gothic cathedrals anymore.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the most famous and important Gothic cathedrals in France (the Reasons for their occurrence, architecture, and stages of construction).
ü poznakomitsya features of Gothic architecture;
ü to determine the value of the Gothic Cathedral and its role in the life of the medieval city;
ü get acquainted with the most outstanding Gothic cathedrals in France;
ü to study the art works of French poets and writers (legends) on the Strasbourg Cathedral.
The results were masterpieces of Gothic architecture, historical facts, art works by French poets and writers.
Research methods used in writing – analysis of cultural literature on the topic, the study of the works of French poets and writers, questioning of students.
In our view this work can be useful to anyone interested in Gothic architecture, the history of France and the French language.
The appearance of Gothic cathedrals in France.
France has 86 Gothic cathedrals. The erection of the cathedrals was not random, we cannot say that the construction of cathedrals was a necessity. Most likely, for the building of cathedrals has influenced the growth of economic development, characteristic of the middle ages. It was during the second half of the XII century and the first quarter of the XIII century in Europe, began the construction of Gothic cathedrals. This period is characterized by construction of towns, which largely contributed to the dynamism of the villages, the development of trade. What was a medieval city? The bulk of the urban population represented the most rebellious, the most free society. Artisans were no longer someone else’s servants, they were United in the independent unions, shop. In many cities there were universities.
In this historical period there has also been reorganization of the Church, which now dominates the Bishop. Becomes a necessity to raise the prestige of the Church. Therefore, increases the desire to build cathedrals, overwhelming the faithful with its height, its height, its size. The Church becomes a symbol of domination. The Church is considered to be the encyclopedia of the stone, as the external grandeur, numerous statues representing apostles, angels, stained glass Windows with images of Jesus Christ, scenes from Scripture, that gives the faithful representation of the world.
The cathedrals were built by order of urban communes. Was built and completed they for a long time – decades and even centuries.
The construction of churches required enormous material resources, mobilization of the best staff: architects, painters, sculptors, architects. Huge funds for the construction of the cathedrals provided the king and the Royal court, the nobles and rich merchants. Sometimes merchants have nedovolstvo and resented the astronomical sums demanded by the Bishop. This is why some churches never have been completed. It should be said that the construction of cathedrals was well organized. There was a special hierarchy between builders: as sung rung of the hierarchical ladder were the bearers of water, stones, followed by the builders who mixed the mortar, bricklayers. Intermediaries between the workers and the architect stepped masons and grinders of gemstones. And finally, the highest echelon of the architect, engineers, sculptors. They are the cathedrals owe their beauty and harmony.
Thus, in the period from XII to XVI century in France occurred 86 Gothic cathedrals in Paris, Strasbourg, Reims and Albi, Chartres and Amiens and many other cities. They admire its grandeur and beauty, are under the supervision and protection of the state, some of them are UNESCO heritage sites.
Features of Gothic architecture.
The GOTHIC style (from ital. gotico, letters, — Gothic, from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready), Gothic style, art style (between sulfurs. 12 and 15-16 centuries), completed the development of medieval art in Western, Central and partly Eastern Europe. In the Gothic architecture reflected a fundamental change in the structure of medieval society. The world’s leading architectural type became the city’s Cathedral: frame system of Gothic architecture (Lancet arches lean against columns; the lateral thrust of the cross vaults, laid on the ribs, transmitted by flying buttresses to the buttresses) has allowed to create an unprecedented height and breadth, the interiors of cathedrals to cut through the walls huge Windows with multi-colored stained glass Windows. The aspiration of a Cathedral up giant expressed openwork towers, Lancet Windows and portals, curved statues, the intricate ornament. Developed urban planning and civil architecture (houses, town halls, shopping arcades, the city tower with elegant decor). In sculpture, stained-glass Windows, picturesque and carved altars, miniatures, decorative items of symbolic-allegorical story combined with new spiritual aspirations, lyrical emotion; expands interest in the real world, the nature, the richness of experiences. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Gothic is changed by the Revival.
It is difficult to find the right words to describe impressions from the Gothic Cathedral. They are high and reach for the sky endless arrows of towers and turrets, visperhof, finials, pointed arches. But more striking is not how much height. how much wealth aspects that open when you circle around the Cathedral. Gothic cathedrals are not only high, but also very long: for example Chartres has a length of 130 meters and the length of the transept is 64 meters, and to work around around it is required to pass at least half a kilometer. And with each point the Cathedral looks new. Unlike the Romanesque Church with its clear, easily foreseeable forms, the Gothic Cathedral is vast, often asymmetrical and even heterogeneous in its parts: each of its facades with their individual portal. Walls are not felt, they would not have. Arches, galleries, towers, some sites with arcades, huge Windows, on and on – infinitely complex, delicate open forms. And all this space is inhabited – the Cathedral both inside and outside is inhabited by a mass of sculptures (in the Chartres Cathedral about ten thousand sculptures). They occupy not only the portals and galleries, but they can also be found on the roof, the eaves, under the arches of the chapels, spiral staircases, occur in the gutter, on consoles. In short, the Gothic Cathedral is the world. He really has absorbed the world of the medieval city.