The medieval period is a sufficiently long time period — from V to XIV century, i.e., about a Millennium. The term “middle ages” arose in the Renaissance. Thinkers of the Italian Renaissance understood it as a dark “middle” age in the development of European culture, a time of universal decline, lying midway between the brilliant epoch of antiquity and the Renaissance, a new flowering of European culture, a revival of ancient ideals. And though later, in the era of romanticism, there was “light the way” of the middle ages, both the middle ages created a very one-sided and false images this crucial stage in the development of Western culture. Actually everything was much more difficult. It was a complex, diverse, contradictory culture.
Architecture, like every art, has an inherent professional language – the language of architectural forms, is inextricably linked with the human world, with his spiritual dispensation. That is why the meaning and value of architectural forms of the medieval Church can be understood by considering the Church in his idea – as a way of modeling the world picture.
In the symbolism of architectural parts and decorative elements of the temple are disclosed the main features of the respective religion. Continue reading
The culture of ancient Mesopotamia is characterized by a high level of science, literature and art, with a clear predominance of religious ideology.
The ancient culture of Mesopotamia — Sumerian-Akkadian (from the names of the two parts of the territory, North and South). The oldest city of our planet, is considered the Sumerian Ur. Many sources show the highest astronomical and mathematical achievements of the Sumerians, their architecture is staggering – they are the first to have built the step pyramid. They created such innovations as prescription reference books, library catalogues, the first calendars.
About 3000 BC, the peoples of Mesopotamia knew the letter and could read. Scrawled on the stone, pressed in clay with the resulting signs, similar to a wedge, meant the whole word, or syllable.
About 3000 BC, the peoples of Mesopotamia knew the letter and could read. Scrawled on the stone, pressed in clay with the resulting signs, similar to a wedge, meant the whole word, or syllable. Continue reading
Mankind has always had a special thrill in relation to the creations of our imagination and intellect. In General, this is true, because such artifacts distinguish us from animals, and we are proud of:
The oldest extant European book
Which of the extant books is the oldest? It’s a complicated issue, given the fact, the very definition of the word “book” has caused a number of debates. However, it was recognized that the oldest book preserved in perfect condition, is the gospel of St. Cuthbert. This book is leather bound in red, written in the 7th century. In 2012, the British library of London paid her $ 14 million the Belgian congregation of the Jesuits. Its fully digitized version can be found on the Internet. The book is a copy of the gospel of John, written in northeastern England for Saint Cuthbert, and then placed in his coffin. When the Vikings began their first raids on these places, the local monastic community left his abode and together with the coffin of St. Cuthbert moved to Durham. The coffin was opened in 1104, when the construction of a new Church dedicated to this Saint. Since then the book was passed from hand to hand until it came to the Jesuits. Continue reading