The medieval period is a sufficiently long time period — from V to XIV century, i.e., about a Millennium. The term “middle ages” arose in the Renaissance. Thinkers of the Italian Renaissance understood it as a dark “middle” age in the development of European culture, a time of universal decline, lying midway between the brilliant epoch of antiquity and the Renaissance, a new flowering of European culture, a revival of ancient ideals. And though later, in the era of romanticism, there was “light the way” of the middle ages, both the middle ages created a very one-sided and false images this crucial stage in the development of Western culture. Actually everything was much more difficult. It was a complex, diverse, contradictory culture.
Architecture, like every art, has an inherent professional language – the language of architectural forms, is inextricably linked with the human world, with his spiritual dispensation. That is why the meaning and value of architectural forms of the medieval Church can be understood by considering the Church in his idea – as a way of modeling the world picture.
In the symbolism of architectural parts and decorative elements of the temple are disclosed the main features of the respective religion. Continue reading
The GOTHIC revival, the GOTHIC REVIVAL (Gothic Revival) architectural style, draw inspiration from medieval architecture and the opposing neo-classical revival in the United States and great Britain; on the continent it is possible to find only separate examples of this style. The earliest example of the Renaissance of elements of Gothic architecture is the house of the English writer Horace Walpole — strawberry hill. As in many other buildings of early Gothic was primarily used for its picturesque and romantic qualities, with little consideration for structural deficiencies or unsuitability of the building for its functions. Another ancient example of the trend toward the use of ornament and decorations is built by James Health, the Abbey of Fonte hill — farmhouse with tower height of 82 meters there are Few things more brighter to illustrate both the impracticality of usage and the romantic associations with the middle ages.
The earliest manifestations of nostalgia for the architecture of the Gothic in respect of private buildings, but by 1820 the years, public buildings in England are also beginning to be designed in the Gothic style. Perhaps the most famous example of this architecture — new houses of Parliament (1840), designed by sir Continue reading
In sculpture, the transition from Romanesque to Gothic occurred slightly later than in architecture, but over time its growth continued at an incredibly fast pace. Ancient Gothic sculpture in just one century reached its peak. Sculpture at this time served as an integral part of the architecture of cathedrals.
In Gothic were observed the principle of unity and subordination of all the arts architecture. The development of plastics has also been inextricably linked with the Gothic architecture. In the visual arts of those times it is the sculpture belonged to the leading place. Although masters often used the relief, the main Gothic plastics was still a statue. Basically, the formation of sculpture in the Gothic epoch was connected with the construction of Amiens, Chartres and Reims cathedrals, in which was used over two thousand various sculptures.
Gothic was the period of this flourishing of monumental sculpture, in which the value of the statuesque plasticity was increased, and appeared to thrust the so-called “high relief”. The Gothic figures were seen as the main elements of the giant decorative and monumental compositional unity. Continue reading