Mankind has always had a special thrill in relation to the creations of our imagination and intellect. In General, this is true, because such artifacts distinguish us from animals, and we are proud of:
The oldest extant European book
Which of the extant books is the oldest? It’s a complicated issue, given the fact, the very definition of the word “book” has caused a number of debates. However, it was recognized that the oldest book preserved in perfect condition, is the gospel of St. Cuthbert. This book is leather bound in red, written in the 7th century. In 2012, the British library of London paid her $ 14 million the Belgian congregation of the Jesuits. Its fully digitized version can be found on the Internet. The book is a copy of the gospel of John, written in northeastern England for Saint Cuthbert, and then placed in his coffin. When the Vikings began their first raids on these places, the local monastic community left his abode and together with the coffin of St. Cuthbert moved to Durham. The coffin was opened in 1104, when the construction of a new Church dedicated to this Saint. Since then the book was passed from hand to hand until it came to the Jesuits. Continue reading
The word stained-glass is derived from the Latin vitrum – glass, and later from French vitrage — glazing. The so-called art form, in which the image is applied to the glass or is composed of pieces of colored glass and designed for through light. Most often, stained-glass Windows fill the window openings in temples and cathedrals.
The stained glass Windows of cathedrals in France and Germany consisted of narrative painting, they were an integral part of Gothic churches. On the stained glass of cathedrals was portrayed, as a rule, religious and domestic scenes.
Speaking of the stained glass Windows of the cathedrals of Europe, not to mention the stained glass Windows of St. Vitus Cathedral
in Prague. They impress with their magnificence, diversity, extraordinary colors and cause a true delight — stained glass image is widely presented on Yandex Photos.
As one of the examples of Gothic Church architecture — Chartres Cathedral in France, located 90 km South of Paris. The stained glass Windows of the Cathedral are considered world heritage, for the collection of stained glass is amazing — it is over 150 Windows, the oldest of which were created in the XII century. Most famous are the stained-glass window 1150 of the year “lady of the beautiful glass” and composition “the Tree of Asaeva” Continue reading
In sculpture, the transition from Romanesque to Gothic occurred slightly later than in architecture, but over time its growth continued at an incredibly fast pace. Ancient Gothic sculpture in just one century reached its peak. Sculpture at this time served as an integral part of the architecture of cathedrals.
In Gothic were observed the principle of unity and subordination of all the arts architecture. The development of plastics has also been inextricably linked with the Gothic architecture. In the visual arts of those times it is the sculpture belonged to the leading place. Although masters often used the relief, the main Gothic plastics was still a statue. Basically, the formation of sculpture in the Gothic epoch was connected with the construction of Amiens, Chartres and Reims cathedrals, in which was used over two thousand various sculptures.
Gothic was the period of this flourishing of monumental sculpture, in which the value of the statuesque plasticity was increased, and appeared to thrust the so-called “high relief”. The Gothic figures were seen as the main elements of the giant decorative and monumental compositional unity. Continue reading